To restore the balance and do what you can to ensure that people get what they deserve.

a.k.a. dikaiosunê/δικαιοσύνη

Justice… as one of the cardinal virtues, covers all those things owed to other people: it is under injustice that murder, theft and lying come, as well as withholding of what is owed for instance by parents to children and by children to parents, as well as dealings which would be called unjust in everyday speech. ―Philippa Foot, Moral Beliefs

You might commit injustice from a heat-of-the-moment passion, or from a well-thought-out long-term plan. It may be that being just requires you to fortify yourself against both of these in different ways. (See e.g. Cicero, De Officiis I.8)

Complementary virtues

Contrasting vices

  • acquisitiveness (pleonexia), avarice (Cicero, De Officiis I.7, lists this as a cause of injustice)
  • ambition (“for empires, honor, or glory”: Cicero, De Officiis I.8)
  • injustice
  • partiality
  • unfairness

Virtues possibly in tension

How to acquire or strengthen it


Notes and links

Mentioned elsewhere

Inspirational quotes

  • “Without justice there is no virtue.” ―Cicero
  • “Some one asked: ‘What do you think about the principle of rewarding enmity with kindness?’ ‘With what, then, would you reward kindness?’ asked the Master. ‘Reward enmity with just treatment, and kindness with kindness.’” (Analects of Confucius, XIV.XXXVI)