the ability to adjust to changing conditions and understandings

Complementary virtues

Contrasting vices

  • bull-headedness
  • docility (vice of excess)
  • inflexibility
  • obsessiveness
  • perfectionism
  • stubbornness

Virtues possibly in tension

How to acquire or strengthen it


Notes and links


Mentioned elsewhere

Inspirational quotes

  • “The measure of intelligence is the ability to change.” ―Albert Einstein
  • “Despite my firm convictions, I have been always a man who tries to face facts, and to accept the reality of life as new experience and new knowledge unfolds it. I have always kept an open mind, which is necessary to the flexibility that must go hand in hand with every form of intelligent search for truth.” ―Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X
  • “A man is born gentle and weak; at his death he is hard and stiff. All things, including the grass and trees, are soft and pliable in life; dry and brittle in death. Stiffness is thus a companion of death; flexibility a companion of life. An army that cannot yield will be defeated. A tree that cannot bend will crack in the wind. The hard and stiff will be broken; the soft and supple will prevail.” ―Lao-Tzu
  • “You must understand how laughable it is to say, ‘Tell me what to do!’ What advice could I possibly give? No, a far better request is: ‘Train my mind to adapt to any circumstance.’ … In this way, if circumstances take you off-script… you won’t be desperate for a new prompting.” —Epictetus, Discourses 2.2
  • “The soft-minded man always fears change. He feels security in the status quo, and he has an almost morbid fear of the new. For him, the greatest pain is the pain of a new idea.” —MLK, Jr.